Potato Ploidy and Endosperm Balance Number
Solanum tuberosum potatoes have 48 chromosomes, while humans have just The Solanum tuberosum species is the widest-grown species of potato worldwide and is a tetraploid, which means that it has four sets of chromosomes. Most human cells are diploid, which means that they have only two sets. Most types of potato have 48 chromosomes although some have just The number in the basic set is 12, and potatoes have either 2 or, more usually, 4 sets.
Asked by Pltato User. Most types of potato have 48 chromosomes although some have just chromowomes The number in the basic set is 12, and potatoes have either 2 or, more usually, 4 sets. I think it has 6 or so. The number of chromosomes of a species has little to do with the complexity of the organism or the amount of DNA.
The reason for this is, chromosomes are known to break and form two or more new chromosomes, or fuse into one. The chromosomes of the potato and the potato lineage may have undergone many such changes, and the human lineage may have chromosommes a different series, resulting in the potato having more chromosomes.
I'm doing this for science homework. I don't really know. The gamete would contain half the number of chromosomes as the tetraploid parent cell. Humans share very little with a potato. Chromosomes are a collection of DNA woven around protein. A chromosome may contain as many asto billions of nucleotides in one chain. If a sex cell has 12 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will there be after fertilization? One pair of chromosomes is two chromosomes. There are potato types of potato tissue.
A potato is used for many things. They are used for making fries, potato chips, and many other things. This have 44 chromosomes. Ask Question. Animal Life. See Answer. Top Answer. Potatk User Answered Related Questions. How many chromosomes potxto white potato plants have?
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How many chromosomes does potato have?
In contrast cultivated potatoes have four sets of 12 chromosomes, for a total of 48 chromosomes, and are said to be tetraploid (tetra means 4). Now, do all cells in potato contain 48 chromosomes? No. Just as in diploid species, sex cells in the potato (eggs and pollen) contain only half of the genetic information of somatic cells. So each. Jan 06, · Options: 48 chromosomes. 25 chromosomes. 60 chromosomes. 13 chromosomes. Number of Chromosomes in Potato: There are 48 number of chromosomes inside a diploid potato cell. Which then goes through the process of mitosis and it then .
Once you move past breeding only with domesticated tetraploid potatoes, it becomes helpful to understand the crossing barriers between different levels of ploidy and between domesticated and wild species.
Different levels of ploidy are a factor in breeding many species, but, in potatoes, ploidy interacts with an additional factor: the endosperm balance number EBN. Together, ploidy and EBN can be used to predict which crosses can be successful. That said, there is nothing here that you need a fancy education to understand.
Just take your time. This is a jargon-heavy topic, with more than one way to express many of the ideas. I have done my best to de-jargonize where possible, but there is quite a bit of terminology that you will need to absorb if you want to proceed from here to reading the scientific literature.
Before we get down into the details of potato ploidy, it is important to review the process by which seeds are formed in flowering plants. Some of this will be immediately relevant and some of it will be more important later on.
It might not be the information that you are looking for right now, but understanding it will pay off a few pages down. All plants undergo alternation of generations , a sporophyte generation and a gametophyte generation.
The sporophyte is what we recognize as the plant and the gametophytes are the male and female components contained within flowers. When you look at a potato plant growing in your garden, you are looking at the sporophyte.
The sporophyte produces spores, which in turn produce gametophytes via meiosis , a process that doubles a cell while halving the number of sets of chromosomes. The gametophytes have half as many sets of chromosomes as the sporophyte does; they are haploid.
The gametophytes produce gametes : ovules and pollen. The gametes are produced by mitosis , a process that doubles a cell while maintaining the same number of chromosomes. Because the gametophytes are haploid and the same number of chromosomes is maintained by mitosis, the gametes are also haploid. Flowering plants, like potatoes, undergo double fertilization. This is the part that will be particularly important later.
When a grain of pollen lands on a pistil , it germinates and then produces a pollen tube that grows down into the ovary where it connects to an ovule and introduces two haploid sperm.
One of the haploid sperm unites with a haploid egg and develops into a diploid zygote. The zygote will go on to become the embryo if the seed develops successfully. But what about the second sperm? It joins with a structure known as the central cell that contains two polar nuclei. The polar nuclei are haploid, but there are twice as many as in a normal cell.
Most cells have one nucleus that contains the chromosomes. Because the central cell has two nuclei, it has two sets of chromosomes. When the central cell is joined with the second sperm, it then has three sets of chromosomes; it is triploid. This triploid cell becomes the endosperm, the source of nutrition for the embryo in the seed. Because it is the result of a separate fertilization, the endosperm is technically a separate organism from the embryo, but its only real purpose is to supply a source of energy for the embryo.
Both the embryo and the endosperm must be viable in order for the seed to finish its development. The successful formation of the endosperm is one of the main limiting factors in potato crosses. The main domesticated potato is Solanum tuberosum , which comes in both diploid and tetraploid forms more on that below. There are also some lesser domesticated potatoes that most people outside of South America have never encountered, including S. In some places, particularly in South America, domesticated potatoes frequently escape cultivation.
We generally describe those as feral potatoes. Wild potatoes , on the other hand, are truly wild and generally grow without any human intervention. There are about recognized species of wild potatoes, ranging from the southwest United States all the way down to the bottom of South America, with the greatest density in the Andes. Wild potatoes are a valuable source of genes for breeding work with the domesticated potato and one of the benefits of understanding more about potato ploidy is learning how to make crosses between domesticated and wild species.
Like many plants, potatoes have several possible levels of ploidy. Ploidy is the number of sets of homologous chromosomes in an organism.
The values of those genes, the alleles, are often different. Humans are diploid. We have two sets of homologous chromosomes; one copy is inherited from each of our parents. In many organisms, more than one set is inherited from each parent. These organisms are called polyploids, because they have more than two sets of homologous chromosomes. The common potatoes that you will find in grocery stores in North America and Europe are polyploids and, more specifically, tetraploids.
They have four sets of homologous chromosomes, with two inherited from each parent. In South America, they also have many diploid potatoes.
Only diploids and tetraploids are commonly found in the domesticated potato Solanum tuberosum , but there are rarer levels of ploidy, including triploids and pentaploids. Some levels are rarely or never found in nature but are possible with human intervention, including monoploids and octoploids. Pentaploids are typically not the main level of ploidy in a potato species, but result from inter-species crosses.
When describing the genome of a species, we use the monoploid number x and the haploid number n to show the relationship between the number of unique chromosomes in that species x and the total number of chromosomes present in its gametes n.
It is the minimum number of chromosomes that could produce a viable organism of that species. When additional sets of chromosomes exist, they are termed homologous. A diploid potato has two homologous copies of each chromosome. In the case of potatoes, n is some multiple of A diploid potato has 2 sets of chromosomes, for a total of The haploid form of a diploid is monoploid.
The haploid number equals the monoploid number. A diploid potato has 24 chromosomes, which is twice the monoploid number and twice the haploid number.
A tetraploid potato has 4 sets of chromosomes for a total of The haploid form of a tetraploid is diploid. The haploid number is twice the monoploid number.
A tetraploid potato has 48 chromosomes, which is four times the monoploid number and twice the haploid number. A triploid potato, like Solanum juzepczukii , has 3 sets of chromosomes for a total of For an organism to have normal sexual reproduction, n must be a whole number.
In this case, n is not a whole number, so Solanum juzepczukii has impaired sexual reproduction. Haploid is a general term that always describes half n of the sporophytic chromosome number 2n , regardless of the level of ploidy of the plant. The gametes of a diploid, a tetraploid, or an octoploid can all be correctly described as haploid, but there are also more specific terms.
The haploid of a tetraploid can be described as a dihaploid, that is, a haploid that is diploid. Similarly, the haploid of a hexaploid can be termed a trihaploid and the haploid of an octoploid can be termed a tetrahaploid.
Haploids are not always gametes. It is possible to create plants that are haploids in the sporophyte stage. Haploid potato plants have half of the normal number of sets of chromosomes.
They are commonly used in tetraploid potato breeding to facilitate crosses at the diploid level. A typical scenario involves producing a dihaploid from a tetraploid the haploid is a diploid, since it has half of the chromosomes of a tetraploid , then crossing it with a diploid, selecting progeny from the cross, and then restoring them to tetraploids by chemical doubling.
Ploidy imposes some constraints on compatibility between varieties. In general, the domesticated potatoes are compatible for breeding when they have the same level of ploidy. Cross a diploid with a diploid and you get a diploid; cross a tetraploid with a tetraploid and you get a tetraploid. The situation is more complex when the number of chromosome sets is an odd number or when you try to make crosses between different levels of ploidy. With a triploid, you would expect to get one and a half sets of chromosomes in each gamete, with no way to guarantee that the chromosomes in the half set are homologous with any other randomly chosen half set.
In reality, that is a major simplification and the way that single set of chromosomes gets divided is even less predictable. Because of this, triploids and pentaploids tend to be sterile, or at least dysfunctional and difficult to cross.
Interestingly, they can be more easily crossed to potatoes with even levels of ploidy than to each other.
Such crosses tend to produce aneuploids — varieties that have an irregular number of chromosomes. For example, crossing a pentaploid with a tetraploid usually yields a near-tetraploid aneuploid. A common result would be a tetraploid that has six extra chromosomes.
That plant will often be self compatible and future generations will tend to lose the extra chromosomes, eventually becoming true tetraploids. That is not completely unworkable for pollen, since it is produced in such large amounts, but it will likely require quite a bit of persistence to make a successful cross.
Among domesticated potatoes, it is possible to make crosses between different levels of ploidy, but this is not entirely straightforward.
In any cross between a diploid and a tetraploid, you would end up with a gamete from the diploid that has 1 set of chromosomes and a gamete from the tetraploid that has two sets of chromosomes. Combine these and you would predict a triploid zygote with 3 sets.
As we have discussed in the previous sections, meiosis normally produces haploid 1n gametes. The fusion of two 1n gametes results in a 2n organism. In many plants, and particularly in the potato, 2n gametes may also be produced on occasion. As you can imagine, a 2n gamete would be problematic in a cross between two varieties with the same level of ploidy.
If one parent produces a normal 1n, 1x gamete and the other produces an unreduced 2n, 2x gamete, the theoretical outcome is a 2n, 3x triploid zygote.
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