Difference between Equator and Poles
Oct 08, · The Earth's equator is an imaginary planetary line that is about 40, km (24, mi) long in circumference. The equator divides the planet into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere and is located at 0 degrees latitude, the halfway line between the North Pole and South Pole.. In spatial (3D) geometry, as applied in astronomy, the equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a . Mar 19, · With the Equator as the reference point, the North Pole lies at 90°N and the South Pole lies at 90°S. Likewise, the furthest point eastwards from the Prime Meridian is expressed as °E and the furthest point westward is expressed as °W.
While Longitudes are the measurements east or west of the Prime Meridian and run how to complain about sky the north pole to the south pole. Latitudes are parallel while Longitudes are convergent. Circles of Latitude are imaginary east to west circles that connect all places with the same latitude. All Circles of Latitude are parallel to the Equator and perpendicular to all Longitudes at the intersection points.
Parallels get smaller towards the poles than closer to how to make a knitted washcloth Equatorial Plane. Unlike latitudes that have the Equator as the central Latitude, the Prime Meridian rirection been set as the reference point of meridians over the course of history. Circles of Latitude are called parallels while half of a longitudinal circle is called a Meridian. Meridians are important for setting time zones.
There are five main parallels that are useful to explain the correlation between the Earth, the Sun, and climate. As such, these five main parallels also mark the five geographical zones.
These are:. The are around the Equator is referred to as the Tropics and is limited northward by the Tropic of Cancer and southward by the Tropic of Capricorn. The region north of the Arctic Circle called the North Frigid Zone is sluth by extremely cold temperatures and ice. During the winter, the region experiences 24 hours of darkness in a day and 24 hours of sunlight in a day during the summers.
Another reference for the Tropic of Cancer is the Northern Tropic. The Northern Tropic is the parallel at which the Summer or Nothern or June Solstice occurs when once a year the sun appears directly overhead the most northerly parallel. This event happens in the month of June. The Southern Tropic is another reference for the Tropic of Capricorn. The Tropic of Capricorn is the parallel at which the Winter or Southern or December Solstice occurs when once a year the sun appears directly overhead the most southerly parallel.
This event happens in the month of December. These two parallels enclose the area of the Earth known as The Tropics characterized by warm to hot weather and lush vegetation.
It is identified as the latitude that falls at the point that is equidistant from the North Pole and the Frkm Pole. The sun is perpendicular to the Equator twice a year in March and September. This event is called directtion Equinox. It is the longitudinal meridian of reference.
The Prime Meridian divides the earth into two hemispheres, the Western Hemisphere to the west and the Eastern Hemisphere to the east. Circles of latitude and what is the name of turkey money. Oishimaya Sen Nag March 19 in Geography.
The North Pole lies 90° on the north of the equator and the South Pole lies 90° on the south of the equator. The direction of the Earth’s poles, relative to the Sun, causes the difference in energy received at the Equator and the poles. The normal amount of solar radiation reduces from the Equator to the poles. At the equator the latitude is 0? and ()Sin0 = 0, the pendulum will not appear to rotate at all but only swing back and forth remaining in the same plane relative to the floor. At the South Pole the latitude is 90? and ()Sin90 = ? so the pendulum will make one complete revolution in one day. Aug 14, · The South Pole is the southernmost point on the Earth. It is the precise point of the southern intersection of the Earth's axis and the Earth's surface. From the South Pole, all directions are north. Its latitude is 90 degrees south, and all lines of longitude meet there (as well as at the North Pole, on the opposite end of the Earth). The South Pole is located on Antarctica, one of the Earth.
The Earth 's equator is an imaginary planetary line that is about 40, km 24, mi long in circumference. The equator divides the planet into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere and is located at 0 degrees latitude , the halfway line between the North Pole and South Pole.
It is the imaginary line on the spheroid, equidistant from its poles , dividing it into northern and southern hemispheres. In other words, it is the intersection of the spheroid with the plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation and midway between its geographical poles. When the Sun is directly above the Earth's equator on the equinoxes of approximately March 20 and September 23 , sunlight shines perpendicular to the Earth's axis of rotation, and all latitudes have a hour day and hour night.
On and near the equator sunlight comes from almost directly above every day year-round, and thus the equator has a rather stable daytime temperature the whole year. The name is derived from medieval Latin word aequator , in the phrase circulus aequator diei et noctis, meaning 'circle equalizing day and night', from the Latin word aequare meaning 'make equal'.
The equator is one of the five notable circles of latitude on Earth; the other four are both polar circles the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle and both tropical circles the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
The equator is the only line of latitude which is also a great circle —that is, one whose plane passes through the center of the globe. The plane of Earth's equator, when projected outwards to the celestial sphere , defines the celestial equator. In the cycle of Earth's seasons , the equatorial plane runs through the Sun twice per year : on the equinoxes in March and September.
To a person on Earth, the Sun appears to travel above the equator or along the celestial equator at these times. Light rays from the Sun's center are perpendicular to Earth's surface at the point of solar noon on the equator. Locations on the equator experience the shortest sunrises and sunsets because the Sun's daily path is nearly perpendicular to the horizon for most of the year. The length of daylight sunrise to sunset is almost constant throughout the year; it is about 14 minutes longer than nighttime due to atmospheric refraction and the fact that sunrise begins or sunset ends as the upper limb, not the center, of the Sun's disk contacts the horizon.
Earth bulges slightly at the equator; the "average" diameter of Earth is 12, km 7, mi , but the diameter at the equator is about 43 km 27 mi greater than at the poles. The added velocity reduces the fuel needed to launch spacecraft eastward in the direction of Earth's rotation to orbit, while simultaneously avoiding costly maneuvers to flatten inclination during missions such as the Apollo moon landings.
The precise location of the equator is not truly fixed; the true equatorial plane is perpendicular to the Earth's rotation axis , which drifts about 9 metres 30 ft during a year. This effect must be accounted for in detailed geophysical measurements.
Geological samples show the equator significantly changed positions between 12 and 48 million years ago, as sediment deposited by ocean thermal currents at the equator have shifted. The deposits by thermal currents are determined by the axis of the earth, which determines solar coverage of the Earth's surface.
Changes in Earth axis can also be observed in the geographic layout of volcanic island chains, which are created by shifting hot spots under the Earth's crust as the axis and crust move.
The WGS 84 World Geodetic System which is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and satellite navigation including GPS , also has an equatorial radius of 6, The geographical mile is defined as one arc-minute of the equator, so it has different values depending on which radius is assumed.
For example, by WSG, the distance is 1, This is a difference of less than one millimetre 0. The earth is commonly modeled as a sphere flattened 0. This makes the equator 0. The IUGG standard meridian is, to the nearest millimetre, 40, The sea-level surface of the Earth the geoid is irregular, so the actual length of the equator is not so easy to determine.
The equator passes through the land of 11 countries. Indonesia is the country straddling the greatest length of the equatorial line across both land and sea.
Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the equator passes through:. Despite its name, no part of Equatorial Guinea lies on the equator. Seasons result from the tilt of the Earth's axis compared to the plane of its revolution around the Sun. Throughout the year, the northern and southern hemispheres are alternately turned either toward or away from the sun depending on Earth's position in its orbit.
The hemisphere turned toward the sun receives more sunlight and is in summer, while the other hemisphere receives less sun and is in winter see solstice. At the equinoxes , the Earth's axis is perpendicular to the sun rather than tilted toward or away, meaning that day and night are both about 12 hours long across the whole of the Earth. Near the equator, this means the variation in strength of solar radiation is different relative to the time of year than it is at higher latitudes: Maximum solar radiation is received during the equinoxes, when a place at the equator is under the subsolar point at high noon, and the intermediate seasons of spring and autumn occur at higher latitudes, and the minimum occurs during both solstices, when either pole is tilted towards or away from the sun, resulting in either summer or winter in both hemispheres.
This also results in a corresponding movement of the equator away from the subsolar point, which is then situated over or near the relevant tropic circle. Nevertheless, temperatures are high year round due to the earth's axial tilt of Near the equator, there is little temperature change throughout the year, though there may be dramatic differences in rainfall and humidity. The terms summer, autumn, winter and spring do not generally apply.
Lowlands around the equator generally have a tropical rainforest climate , also known as an equatorial climate, though cold ocean currents cause some regions to have tropical monsoon climates with a dry season in the middle of the year, and the Somali Current generated by the Asian monsoon due to continental heating via the high Tibetan Plateau causes Greater Somalia to have an arid climate despite its equatorial location.
Rainfall is very high away from cold ocean current upwelling zones, from 2, to 3, mm to in per year. There are about rainy days per year and average annual sunshine hours are around 2, Despite high year-round sea level temperatures, some higher altitudes such as the Andes and Mount Kilimanjaro have glaciers. This is slightly above the snow line and is the only place on the equator where snow lies on the ground.
At the equator, the snow line is around 1, metres 3, ft lower than on Mount Everest and as much as 2, metres 6, ft lower than the highest snow line in the world, near the Tropic of Capricorn on Llullaillaco. There is a widespread maritime tradition of holding ceremonies to mark a sailor's first crossing of the equator. In the past, these ceremonies have been notorious for their brutality, especially in naval practice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and midway between the poles.
For other uses, see Equator disambiguation. Left : A monument marking the equator near the city of Pontianak, Indonesia Right : Road sign marking the equator near Nanyuki , Kenya. Further information: Earth ellipsoid and Reference ellipsoid. Main article: Earth's circumference. Main articles: Seasons , Tropics , and Effect of sun angle on climate. Diagram of the seasons, depicting the situation at the December solstice. Regardless of the time of day i.
In addition to the density of incident light, the dissipation of light in the atmosphere is greater when it falls at a shallow angle. Main article: Line-crossing ceremony. Geography portal. National Geographic - Education. Retrieved 9 March Retrieved 5 May Benson Chapter 1. Archived from the original on 15 September Retrieved 8 May Equatorial launch sites offered certain advantages over facilities within the continental United States.
The more frequent overhead passage of the orbiting vehicle above an equatorial base would facilitate tracking and communications. Most important, an equatorial launch site would avoid the costly dogleg technique, a prerequisite for placing rockets into equatorial orbit from sites such as Cape Canaveral, Florida 28 degrees north latitude. Celest Mech Dyn Astr. Bibcode : CeMDA. S2CID Archived from the original PDF on 18 December World Weather Information Service.
World Meteorological Organization. Hong Kong Observatory. Archived from the original on 26 October Moritz, H September Berlin : Springer-Verlag. Bibcode : BGeod.. Computational Spherical Astronomy. New York : Wiley. ISBN X. OCLC IAU data. Tropic of Cancer. Tropic of Capricorn. Arctic Circle. Antarctic Circle. Categories : Celestial coordinate system Circles of latitude Geodesy Tropics. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
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