8 Weeks Pregnant
Here's a week-by-week look at the changes. Your little one is about as long as a large bok choy by week Her eyes can open and her toenails are starting to grow in. Next week, she weighs about. Mar 15, · What To Expect When You’re Expecting, 5th edition, Heidi Murkoff.; freenicedating.com, Prenatal Testing During Pregnancy, March freenicedating.com, How Does Gestational Diabetes (GD) Affect Your Pregnancy and Baby?, December freenicedating.com, Glucose Screening and Glucose Tolerance Test, November freenicedating.com, What to Do If You Get a UTI During Pregnancy.
When a procedure is done or medication is taken to end a pregnancy, it is called an induced abortion. A first- trimester abortion can be performed up to 13 weeks of pregnancy. Most induced abortions are performed during the first trimester. A first-trimester abortion is one of the safest medical procedures. A first-trimester abortion can be performed with surgery a procedure called suction curettage or by taking medication. Suction curettage is the most common type of abortion. A speculum is inserted into your vagina to hold it open.
Your cervix usually is dilated opened so that a suction tube can fit through it. Your cervix is dilated either at the time of the procedure or before the procedure. When it is done at the time of the procedure, a series what is nickels freezing point dilators are inserted into and withdrawn from the cervix to gradually increase the size of the opening.
When it is done before the procedure, different techniques can be used. Special dilators called laminaria can be inserted into the cervix.
Medications also can be taken by mouth or placed in the vagina to dilate the cervix. After the cervix is dilated, a thin, plastic tube is inserted into the uterus. It is attached to a suction or vacuum pump, which removes the pregnancy.
How to connect rfid reader to database the procedure, local anesthesia is given to numb the cervix. Sedatives may or may not be used. It may be possible to have general anesthesia. After the procedure, you will rest in a recovery area.
You may be able to go home as soon as an hour afterward. You can expect to have cramping for 1 or 2 days afterward. Bleeding may last for up to 2 weeks. A first-trimester medical abortion does not require surgery or anesthesia, but multiple visits to the health care provider are needed. Some drugs that induce abortion are taken by mouth, whereas others are inserted into the vagina. Sometimes the drugs can be taken at home. The drugs used in a medical abortion will cause bleeding that is much heavier than a menstrual period.
There may be severe cramping. Nausea, vomiting, fever, and chills may occur. You can take over-the-counter pain medication. Your health care provider also may prescribe stronger pain medication if needed. It can take several days or weeks for the abortion to be complete. You will need to see your health care provider within 2 weeks to make sure the abortion is complete. If you are still pregnant after taking the medication, you may be given another dose of medication or you may need to have a surgical abortion.
Continuing the pregnancy is not recommended because the drugs used for medical abortion are known to cause severe birth defects. A second-trimester abortion is one that takes place after 13 weeks of pregnancy. In the second trimester, a surgical abortion has fewer complications than a medical abortion.
Most women who have a second-trimester abortion have a surgical abortion. Dilation and evacuation usually can be done as outpatient surgery, meaning that you can go home the same day. You may need to visit your health care provider the day before to take medications or start having your cervix dilated. Your cervix is dilated with dilators, laminaria, or medication. General anesthesia or regional anesthesia may be used for pain relief. The fetus is removed through the vagina. Suction is used to remove any remaining tissue.
Second-trimester medical abortion usually is done in a hospital or clinic where you can be monitored throughout the procedure. The medications used to cause the abortion may be put in your vagina, taken by mouth, injected into your uterus, or given through an intravenous IV line.
These drugs cause the uterus to contract and expel the fetus. Drugs to relieve pain usually are given. Regional anesthesia often is an option. The drugs usually cause the abortion to begin within 12 hours.
The what do high red blood cells mean usually is complete within 12—24 hours, although the timing can be unpredictable.
The drugs may cause side effects such as nausea, fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. Medications to manage these side effects can be given as needed.
Abortion is a low-risk procedure. Major complications that require hospitalization are rare. The risk of death from abortion is lower than 1 inbut increases slightly with every week of pregnancy. The risk of dying from giving birth is 14 times greater than the risk of dying from an early abortion. But as with any medical procedure, problems sometimes can occur. These can include the following:. Incomplete abortion—If the abortion is incomplete, a follow-up procedure may be needed.
This is more likely to happen with a medical abortion. Infection—Your health care provider will prescribe antibiotics to prevent this. Antibiotics also can be used to treat an infection if one occurs. Heavy bleeding—Some bleeding after an abortion is normal.
Bleeding is rarely heavy enough to require a blood transfusion. Injury to the uterus and other organs—The risk of these complications occurring during a second-trimester how to clean vinyl jacket is less than 1 in 1, The risk increases with the length of the pregnancy. You can get pregnant soon after an abortion, even before your period returns.
Most birth control methods can be started on the same day of an abortion. However, you need to wait about 6 weeks after a second-trimester abortion to use a cervical cap or a diaphragm to give the cervix time to return to its normal size. Some women worry that having an abortion could affect their future health.
Most health care providers agree that one abortion does not affect your ability to get pregnant or the risk of future pregnancy complications. Recent studies have shown no link between abortion and breast cancer. For women with an unplanned pregnancy, there is no difference in the risk of depression or other mental health problems between those who have an abortion and those who have the baby.
Cervix : The lower, narrow end of the uterus at the top of the vagina. Depression : Feelings of sadness for periods of at least 2 weeks. Fetus : The developing organism in the uterus from the ninth week of pregnancy until the end of what time do laundromats open. General Anesthesia: The use of drugs that produce a sleep-like state to prevent pain during surgery.
Laminaria: Slender rods made of natural or synthetic material that expands when they absorbs water; they are inserted into the opening of the cervix to widen it. Regional Anesthesia: The use of drugs to block sensation in a region of the body. Suction Curettage: Removal of the contents of the uterus using a suction device inserted through the cervix.
Uterus: A muscular organ located in the female pelvis that contains and nourishes the developing fetus during pregnancy. Vagina: A tube-like structure surrounded by muscles leading from the uterus to the outside of the body. Copyright by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
All rights reserved. Read copyright and permissions information. This information is designed as an educational aid for the public. It offers current information and opinions related to women's health. It is not intended as a statement of the standard of care. It does not explain all of the proper treatments or methods of care. It is not a substitute for the advice of a physician. These can include the following: Incomplete abortion—If the abortion is incomplete, a follow-up procedure may be needed.
If any of the following occur, call your health care provider: Severe abdominal or back pain Heavy bleeding soaking two maxipads per hour for 2 consecutive hours Foul-smelling discharge A fever above Antibiotics: Drugs that treat certain types of infections. Local Anesthesia: The use of drugs that prevent pain in a part of the body. Sedatives: Agents or drugs that ease nervousness or tension.
Speculum: An instrument used to hold open the walls of the vagina. Trimester: Any how to buy dirt bike the three 3-month periods into which pregnancy is divided. Article continues below Advertisement.
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Your Baby at Week 8
That's because your uterus, usually the size of a fist, has grown to the size of a large grapefruit by week 8 of pregnancy. Admittedly, that's still pretty small. But while it's unlikely you look pregnant from the outside, you almost certainly feel pregnant on the inside, especially when those insides threaten to . May 01, · The third trimester of pregnancy starts in week 28 of your pregnancy and lasts until you give birth, which is around the 40th week. The third trimester can be tiring and more uncomfortable as your baby takes up more room and you experience. You're in your ninth month! Baby development at 40 weeks. What to expect. Babies of all ethnicities are born with reddish-purple skin that changes to pinkish-red in a day or so. The pink tint comes from the red blood vessels that are visible through your baby's still-thin skin. Pregnancy symptoms during week Frustration? After.
Parenting or child rearing promotes and supports the physical , emotional , social , and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Parenting refers to the intricacies of raising a child and not exclusively for a biological relationship. The most common caretaker in parenting is the father or mother, or both, the child's biological parent s in question. However, a surrogate may be an older sibling, a step-parent, a grandparent, a legal guardian , aunt, uncle, or other family members, or a family friend.
In many cases, orphaned or abandoned children receive parental care from non-parent or non-blood relations. Others may be adopted , raised in foster care , or placed in an orphanage. Parenting skills vary, and a parent or surrogate with good parenting skills may refer to as a good parent. Social class , wealth , culture and income have a very strong impact on what methods of child rearing parents use.
However, parenting is always evolving, as times, cultural practices, social norms, and traditions change. Studies on these factors affecting parenting decisions have shown just that. In psychology, the parental investment theory suggests that basic differences between males and females in parental investment have great adaptive significance and lead to gender differences in mating propensities and preferences.
A family's social class plays a large role in the opportunities and resources that will be available to a child. Working-class children often grow up at a disadvantage with the schooling, communities, and level of parental attention available compared to those from the middle-class or upper-class.
A parenting style is indicative of the overall emotional climate in the home. On the one hand, these four styles involve combinations of acceptance and responsiveness, and involve demand and control. In particular, authoritative parenting is positively related to mental health and satisfaction with life, and authoritarian parenting is negatively related to these variables. A parenting practice is a specific behavior that a parent uses in raising a child.
In cultures with strong oral traditions, such as Indigenous American communities, storytelling is a critical parenting practice for children. Parenting practices reflect the cultural understanding of children. Parents in more communal cultures, such as West African cultures, spend more time talking to the baby about other people and more time with the baby facing outwards so that the baby sees what the mother sees. Parenting skills assist parents in leading children into healthy adulthood, influencing their development, and maintaining their negative and positive behaviors.
The cognitive potential, social skills, and behavioral functioning a child acquires during the early years are fundamentally dependent on the quality of their interactions with their parents. Canadian Council on Learning says that children benefit avoid poor developmental outcomes when their parents: .
Parenting skills are widely thought to be naturally present in parents; however, there is substantial evidence to the contrary. Those who come from a negative or vulnerable childhood environment frequently often unintentionally mimic their parents' behavior during interactions with their own children. Parents with inadequate understanding of developmental milestones may also demonstrate problematic parenting.
Parenting practices are of particular importance during marital transitions like separation, divorce, and remarriage;  if children fail to adequately adjust to these changes, they are at risk of negative outcomes e.
Research classifies competence and skills required in parenting as follows: . Parent psychosocial health can have a significant impact on the parent-child relationship.
Group-based parent training and education programs have proven to be effective at improving short-term psychosocial well-being for parents. Parents around the world want what they believe is best for their children. However, parents in different cultures have different ideas of what is best.
Many such cultures begin teaching children to use sharp tools, including knives, before their first birthdays. Differences in cultural values cause parents to interpret the same behaviors in different ways. Italian parents value social and emotional competence and believe that curiosity demonstrates good interpersonal skills. Even so, parents around the world share specific prosocial behavioral goals for their children.
Hispanic parents value respect and emphasize putting family above the individual. Parents in East Asia prize order in the household above all else. In some cases, this gives rise to high levels of psychological control and even manipulation on the part of the head of the household.
It is common for parents in many Indigenous American communities to use different parenting tools such as storytelling —like myths— Conejos Spanish for "advice" , educational teasing, nonverbal communication, and observational learning to teach their children important values and life lessons. Storytelling is a way for Indigenous American children to learn about their identity, community, and cultural history.
Indigenous myths and folklore often personify animals and objects, reaffirming the belief that everything possesses a soul and deserves respect. These stories also help preserve the language and are used to reflect certain values or cultural histories.
The C onsejo is a narrative form of advice-giving. Rather than directly telling the child what to do in a particular situation, the parent might instead tell a story about a similar situation. The main character in the story is intended to help the child see their decision's implications without directly deciding for them; this teaches the child to be decisive and independent while still providing some guidance.
The playful form of teasing is a parenting method used in some Indigenous American communities to keep children out of danger and guide their behavior. This parenting strategy utilizes stories, fabrications, or empty threats to guide children in making safe, intelligent decisions. For example, a parent may tell a child that there is a monster that jumps on children's backs if they walk alone at night.
This explanation can help keep the child safe because instilling that fear creates greater awareness and lessens the likelihood that they will wander alone into trouble. In Navajo families, a child's development is partly focused on the importance of "respect" for all things. Children largely learn about this concept via nonverbal communication between parents and other family members.
On this run, the community uses humor and laughter with each other, without directly including the child—who may not wish to get up early and run—to encourage the child to participate and become an active member of the community. Indigenous American parents often incorporate children into everyday life, including adult activities, allowing the child to learn through observation. This practice is known as LOPI, Learning by Observing and Pitching In , where children are integrated into all types of mature daily activities and encouraged to observe and contribute in the community.
This inclusion as a parenting tool promotes both community participation and learning. One notable example appears in some Mayan communities: young girls are not permitted around the hearth for an extended period of time, since corn is sacred. Although this is an exception to their cultural preference for incorporating children into activities, including cooking, it is a strong example of observational learning.
Mayan girls can only watch their mothers making tortillas for a few minutes at a time, but the sacredness of the activity captures their interest. They will then go and practice their mother's movements on other objects, such as kneading thin pieces of plastic like a tortilla.
From this practice, when a girl comes of age, she is able to sit down and make tortillas without having ever received any explicit verbal instruction. Due to the increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the United States, ethnic-racial socialization research has been gained attention. Ethnic-racial socialization dimensions are defined as follows: cultural socialization is the process of passing down cultural customs, preparation for bias ranges from positive or negative reactions to racism and discrimination, promotion of mistrust conditions synergy when dealing with other races, and egalitarianism puts similarities between races first.
This meta-analysis showed that developmental stages affect how children perceived ethnic-racial socialization. Among other conclusions derived from this meta-analysis, cultural socialization and self-perceptions had a small positive correlation. Cultural socialization and promotion of mistrust had a small negative correlation, and interpersonal relationships positively impacted cultural socialization and preparation for bias.
The meta-analysis on previous research shows only correlations, so there is a need for experimental studies that can show causation amongst the different domains and dimensions. Family planning is the decision-making process surrounding whether and when to become parents, including planning, preparing, and gathering resources.
Prospective parents may assess among other matters whether they have access to sufficient financial resources, whether their family situation is stable, and whether they want to undertake the responsibility of raising a child. Reproductive health and preconception care affect pregnancy, reproductive success, and the physical and mental health of both mother and child.
A woman who is underweight , whether due to poverty, eating disorders , or illness, is less likely to have a healthy pregnancy and give birth to a healthy baby than a woman who is healthy. Similarly, a woman who is obese has a higher risk of difficulties, including gestational diabetes. During pregnancy , the unborn child is affected by many decisions made by the parents, particularly choices linked to their lifestyle.
The health, activity level, and nutrition available to the mother can affect the child's development before birth.
Other mothers, especially if they are poor or abused , maybe overworked and may not be able to eat enough, or not able to afford healthful foods with sufficient iron, vitamins, and protein, for the unborn child to develop properly. Newborn parenting is where the responsibilities of parenthood begin.
A newborn's basic needs are food, sleep, comfort, and cleaning, which the parent provides. An infant's only form of communication is crying, and attentive parents will begin to recognize different types of crying representing different needs such as hunger, discomfort, boredom, or loneliness. Newborns and young infants require feedings every few hours, which is disruptive to adult sleep cycles.
They respond enthusiastically to soft stroking, cuddling, and caressing. Gentle rocking back and forth often calms a crying infant, as do massages and warm baths.
Newborns may comfort themselves by sucking their thumb or a pacifier. The need to suckle is instinctive and allows newborns to feed.
Breastfeeding is the recommended method of feeding by all major infant health organizations. Other alternatives include feeding breastmilk or formula with a cup, spoon, feeding syringe, or nursing supplement. The forming of attachments is considered the foundation of the infant's capacity to form and conduct relationships throughout life. Attachment is not the same as love or affection, although they often go together. Attachments develop immediately, and a lack of attachment or a seriously disrupted attachment can potentially do severe damage to a child's health and well-being.
Physically, one may not see symptoms or indications of a disorder, but the child may be emotionally affected. Studies show that children with secure attachment have the ability to form successful relationships, express themselves on an interpersonal basis, and have higher self-esteem [ citation needed ]. Conversely children who have neglectful or emotionally unavailable caregivers can exhibit behavioral problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder or oppositional defiant disorder  Oppositional-defiant disorder is a pattern of disobedient and rebellious behavior toward authority figures.
Toddlers are small children between 12 and 36 months old who are much more active than infants and become challenged with learning how to do simple tasks by themselves. At this stage, parents are heavily involved in showing the small child how to do things rather than just doing things for them; it is usual for the toddler to mimic the parents.
Toddlers need help to build their vocabulary, increase their communication skills, and manage their emotions. Toddlers will also begin to understand social etiquette, such as being polite and taking turns. Toddlers are very curious about the world around them and eager to explore it. They seek greater independence and responsibility and may become frustrated when things do not go the way they want or expect.
Tantrums begin at this stage, which is sometimes referred to as the 'Terrible Twos'. Parents of toddlers are expected to help guide and teach the child, establish basic routines such as washing hands before meals or brushing teeth before bed , and increase the child's responsibilities.
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