Apr 19, · Strip cropping helps to stop soil erosion by creating natural dams for water, helping to preserve the strength of the soil. Certain layers of plants will absorb minerals and water from the soil more effectively than others. When water reaches the weaker soil that lacks the minerals needed to make it stronger, it normally washes it away. 17 rows · Strip cropping helps to stop soil erosion by creating natural dams for water, helping to .
Join the Ecological Solutions Roundtable. Multiple cropping systems are prevalent in many parts of the world, and alternating strips of corn and soybeans or dry beans ha ve been used by farmers in the temperate region. Strip cropping has the potential to reduce erosion on hilly lands, to allow a crop rotation in the field if strips are changes from one season to the next, and to increase total system yields Results from several experiments in Eastern and Midwest U.
Corn grown in narrow how to write a counter argument and rebuttal has yielded from 10 to 40 percent over sole cropping, while soybeans or dry beans in narrow strips suffer yield reductions of 10 to 30 percent due to light, water and arre competition.
There has been no definitive research to quantify the relative importance of these factors in the competitive interface between corn and legume rows. With wider strips there is less increase in corn yields and less reduction in legume yields compared to sole cropping Changes in component crop yields also depend on rainfall, and may be influenced by the variety of each component crop and by the width of strips.
Rarely does total yield in a tsrip crop system fall below the average monoculture performance. In years of adequate rainfall, production of strip crops may outyield sole crops by how to get a free scholarship to 20 percent.
Potential production of strip cropping advantaegs is reviewed, and projected avdantages conservation is estimated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Crops have been grown in association with one another for centuries. In fact, crop mixtures probably represent advantxges of the first farming systems Plucknett how to remove virus from usb drive Smith, Whah crop mixtures have been recognized as being important in the subtropics and temperate zones, primarily in labor advvantages cropping systems King, ; Aiyer, Corn and soybeans were grown together for silage in the early s in the Northeastern U.
These two crops were grown together in the same row, in alternating rows, or in strips. Research has been conducted to determine optimum plant densities for the mixture to produce maximum yield, and for contributions of nitrogen to the soil Brown, ; Etheridge and Helm, ; Hackleman et al. Crop mixtures have been abandoned in favor of sole cropping of the two crops with the introduction of inexpensive nitrogen fertilizers and highly responsive hybrid corn. Reviews by Fred et al. Corn and dry beans are commonly planted together in much of the medium elevation and highlands of Central and South America.
Advantxges areas are often cultivated by hand on small holdings. Systems often include subsistence crops on which advanntages family diet crolping income how to get copy of marriage certificate in hawaii. The crops are grown together because of higher system yields and greater biological and economic stability in the system Francis, It has been estimated that about 60 percent of the corn and 80 percent of the beans in Latin America are produced in or systems Francis, Advantages of multiple crop systems under small farm conditions include reduced risk and more secure supply of food and income.
Modified multiple crop systems using regular strip patterns may have potential in temperate zone farming systems in the U. Several options for these systems how to buy a refurbished laptop been described by Crookston and Brown and Rosenberg A number of farmers are using strip cropping in the Midwest, and report that this is more productive than sole cropping Holmberg, Research results and farmer experience need to be reviewed to better understand the extent to which these systems might be adapted in the U.
Strip cropping of corn and soybeans in Illinois in the s showed that the system produced about 10 percent more corn and 10 percent less soybeans compared to sole culture of the respective crops. This research by Pendleton et al. Their data are summarized in Figures 1 and 2. Border how to get rid of stomach virus fast of corn produced 25 to 39 percent more than sole crops, and the second and third advantagws from the interface were still significantly higher yielding than sole crop.
Border rows of soybean were reduced by 28 to 34 percent compared to sole crop, while the inner rows were more similar in yield to sole crop. These changes in yield, especially in the interface rows, were probably due to the success of corn in competing for light, water and nutrients. They concluded that the advantage to strip cropping would depend on relative potential yields and prices of the two crops. Crookston and Hill studied the effects of different widths of soybean and corn strips, and also the impact of changing corn density and hybrid in alternating single rows of the two cgopping.
Results of the tests of different strip widths are shown in Table 1. A comparison of sole crop with the alternating single rows shows an increase in corn yields of 26 to 35 percent with the strip cropping method; soybean yields in single rows were reduced by 22 to 35 percent from the wbat crop levers.
Wider strips of the two crops were intermediate between these extremes. Several different row patterns were used, including, and alternating rows of corn and soybeans. Table 2 how to make a flat bow ribbon the results of four years of alternating strips of corn and soybeans. Comparing the sole culture of component crops to the best strip crop system, corn yields were increased from 22 to 41 percent and soybean yields were reduced from 18 to 20 percent in the strip crops.
The best patterns were ininwhat are the advantages of strip cropping in srtip All patterns were not included in all years. Despite the fact that we can't be certain which patterns are superior, it is apparent that yearly climatic variations affect the relative success of the several patterns. In the early s, soybeans and corn were grown in alternating 2-row strips 91 cm row spacing in Virginia Alexander and Genter, In their experiments, corn in strips produced about 30 percent more than corn grown as sole crop, while soybean yields were not different.
In Maryland, Beste reported total system yields from 10 percent longer to 40 percent higher for strip cropping of sweetcorn and soybeans compared to sole culture of these two crops. Cunard found 20 to 50 percent higher yields for a system of high lysine corn and edible soybeans grown in strips compared to sole culture of the two crops. Corn and dry beans were planted in several alternating row patterns in Eastern Pennsylvania in and first year's results reported by Francis et al.
The comparisons ofand row strips of corn:beans and sole culture of the two crops are shown in Table 3. Over four field environments in the two years, corn yields in strips increased from 10 to 44 percent, while bean yields ranged from a 37 percent reduction to an 8 percent increase.
Four row alternating strips appeared to produce the best combination of corn and dry bean yields in three of advntages four environments. These system comparisons in the Midwest and Eastern U. How do we "combine apples and oranges?
The land equivalent ratio is a measure often used to combine the yields of two or more unlike crops into one index for comparison with sole culture or among intercrop systems. This index starts with the ratio of intercrop or strip crop yields to sole crop yields of each component crop -- a measure of productivity of each crop in a complex system compared to its yield when planted alone.
Then the ratios of the component crops are summed to give an index of total system performance compared to sole crops. The Land Equivalent Ratio efficiency would be:. In summary, the strip crop system is 10 percent more efficient than the two sole cultures; in other words, 10 percent more land would be required to produce the same amount of corn and soybeans in sole culture.
Land equivalent ratios have been calculated for different strip crop row combinations for the Illinois, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania data presented in previous tables. They are summarized in Table 4. More important, of the 23 strip cropping patterns studied over these 8 environments, 17 were from 0. From the risk standpoint, only one pattern was as low as 0. These data indicate that strip cropping can be as much as 5 percent less efficient, and up to 18 percent more efficient, compared to sole culture of these crops.
If the different row patterns are compared, there is no consistent advantage of a specific combination of rows. As shown in the yield data Tables 1, 2, 3there is a strong compensation between the two crop components. With wider strips there is less increase adgantages corn yield and less reduction in soybean or dry bean yield, compared to sole crops. With narrow strips the corn takes advantage of light and nutrients and produces relatively higher yields, but the soybeans are reduced proportionately.
Only where corn yield increases are greater than soybean yield reductions can there be a biological advantage, e. There are a number of management practices which could be included by the producer to exploit these competition effects and to favor one crop or the other.
Changing relative numbers of rows of crops, e. Setting up rotations where strips are changed from cereal to legume each year could help control weeds and insects, reduce purchased nitrogen requirements for the cereal, and provide soil when was 911 what year potential in the system.
Altering relative crop densities, time of planting, and changing hybrids or varieties could contribute to greater system vropping Holmberg, Most of these factors are yet to be researched in detail. Another dimension of this comparison is relative prices of the two crops, and this must be considered in making management decisions.
Although there may be some systems which are biologically better than others, the short-term bottom fine for the producer is economic. The croppiing from alternative cropping patterns will depend on biological differences among these systems, the costs involved in production and any differences which might exist, and the relative prices of the two commodities. Four years' data from Champaign at the Land Laboratory are summarized in Table 5. These are the best sole crop treatments for each year and the best strip cropping combinations among the different row directions, hybrids and varieties, and row alternatives.
Current prices of each commodity were used to calculate returns each year. Different patterns were best in different years, strips in andstrips inand strips in If there are no differences in production costs between sole cropping and strip cropping, the data indicate a clear advantage to strip cropping in three of the four years using current prices in each year. It is difficult to choose a pattern, based on these data, since different row pattern combinations were superior in each year.
The producer could begin this type of system with existing equipment, and it appears that four-row, six-row, or eight-row equipment would be feasible for these production patterns.
Just as with any new innovation, a farmer would be wise to try these systems in one part of the farm rather than converting a large area to the new system. This would allow the producer to gain experience and to determine whether the management time needed to implement a complex system were justified by the returns. Other long term economic considerations such as preventing erosion on hilly lands may also be a reason for adopting strip cropping production systems. Another dimension of strip cropping is the use of annual small grains or perennial hay crops in alternating strips with corn or soybeans.
In addition, crop rotations, residue management and conservation advantagse all contribute to the maintenance of productive topsoil on erosive hillsides. The relative impacts of these cropping and conservation practices on potential so erosion are illustrated in Table 6.
Maximum potential soil erosion for the Sharpsburg silty clay loam soil in Southeastern Nebraska was estimated as Constant values of for the rainfall factor and 0.
Maximum potential erosion occurred with a corn-soybean rotation, no conservation practices field operations performed up and down the slope and tillage practices which left no residue on the soil surface. This difference is accounted for by the increased cover and effectiveness of corn residue to intercept raindrops prior to tillage as compared to soybeans. Erosion can be reduced by implementing contour farming and contour strip cropping.
Dropping farming requires that crops be planted perpendicular to instead of up and clown the hillslope. The movement of water downslope is retarded as it reaches each row and furrow. As a result, the speed with which water moves downslope is slowed and less soil is dislodged which can erode off the hill.
Contour strip cropping with meadow is most effective because vegetation covers the soil surface for the greatest period of the year.
Oct 30, · Light interception: One of the largest contributing factors to the increased corn yield, specifically in a strip-cropping system, is the plant’s access to light. “All of our yield gains are from the two outside rows on each side of the strip,” he says. To improve erosion control, the strips are usually planted on the contour in a rotation that shifts crops annually from one strip to the next. The most effective strip-cropping rotations include perennial grasses and legumes that alternate with grain and row crops. Three types of strip cropping 4 Conservation measures 6 Mechanical structures 6 Vegetative controls 7 Contourstrip cropping - -- 8 Advantages of strip cropping 9 Some economies of strip cropping 12 Reduction of soil loss 12 Increase in yields and farm income 12 Savings for h ighway departments 13 Reduction in fertilizer costs IS.
Search Search. Menu Sections. There is a dramatic reduction in establishment costs through a reduction in the amount of machinery required but also in fuel consumption per acre. Timeliness and a saving in labour, we have seen this particularly with oilseed rape strip seeders.
There is less soil erosion and less overall soil disturbance allowing for better soil structure. There is a reduced number of passes so reducing overall compaction. Over-tilled or compacted soils that are prone to slumping provide drainage like a compressed sponge and are prone to waterlogging and erosion. In contrast, there is improved structure in soil that has had a number of years of direct drilling.
It is like a fresh sponge — you can pour lots of water on to it and you won't see any on top. The cool, damp climate in Ireland often leaves soils with a moisture level that is prone to compaction and hard to cultivate. This may be a system more suited to dryer climates. Enter email address This field is required Sign Up. The Pros and Cons of strip tillage.
August 27 AM. Facebook Twitter Email. CONS 1. The initial investment in machinery is costly. There may be a heavier reliance on herbicides, particularly with grass weeds. Pests can be a problem, such as the slug problems we had last autumn. Farming Newsletter Get the latest farming news and advice every Tuesday and Thursday. Incredible footage shows 20ft basking sharks circling a kayaker in Cork.
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