Marxism definition is - the political, economic, and social principles and policies advocated by Marx; especially: a theory and practice of socialism including the labor theory of value, dialectical materialism, the class struggle, and dictatorship of the proletariat . Marxism definition, the system of economic and political thought developed by Karl Marx, along with Friedrich Engels, especially the doctrine that the state throughout history has been a device for the exploitation of the masses by a dominant class, that class struggle has been the main agency of historical change, and that the capitalist system, containing from the first the seeds of its own decay, will inevitably, after the period of the dictatorship of the proletariat, be superseded by a.
Marxism is what is a family planning method collective term for the economic, social, and political philosophy of Karl Marx. In particular, the philosophy states that capitalism is a self-destructive system that eventually leads to a revolution of the working class so that they can establish a classless society. Karl Marx was a German radical socialist thinker who lived from until He worked with coffee enema what is it friend, Friedrich Engelsto develop his ideas, which are very complex.
Because of this and the various political ideologies Marxism inspired, Marxism is an extremely controversial topic today. Marx was extremely critical of capitalismseeing it as an oppressive, flawed system that would inevitably collapse. According to Marxismcapitalism is a system in which an elite, wealthy upper class, known as the bourgeoisieexploits the labor of the working class, known as the proletariat.
Marx argued that because the wealthy desired only to make money, it was inevitable that they would try to get workers to work as hard as possible for as little money as possible. The inevitable result of this, according to Marx, was that the workers would grow to hate the wealthy and would unite to revolt against their oppressors.
Marxism is based on the theories of socialismand Marx himself was a radical socialist. Marxism is also very closely related to the political ideology of communism. What is the definition of marxism first records of Marxism come from around Marxism has had a tremendous effect on the world.
Today, you will find incredibly heated debates about Marxism. Opponents of Marxismespecially capitalists, will argue that Marxism has led to the deaths of millions of people thanks to ruthless Communist dictators that based their political philosophy on Marxism.
Regardless of their beliefs, most historians agree that later Communists had their own ideologies that were noticeably different from Marxism. They will instead use terms such as LeninismStalinismand Maoism to refer to the specific doctrines of each of these particular figures. Here is an illustration of Karl Marx, the creator of Marxism. Source: Wikimedia Commons. To make the claim that Marxism is essentially European, you have to ignore millions of colonised people who found in his work the tools to understand their condition.
The black Marxist tradition treats Marxism is a methodology, not a fixed set of conclusions about the world. Karl Marx Friedrich Engels socialism communism capitalism Communist Manifesto bourgeoisie proletariat.
True or False? The irony is that a little of this so-called Marxism is exactly what could have saved capitalism and not for the first time. Ortega shows little interest in fascism or capitalism or Marxismand this troubled me when I first read the book. What in their history do they find inconsistent with totalitarianism, or at best statism, or at worst Marxism?
Knowledge is the saviour-god and Marxism is his divine gospel of freedom from these capitalistic sufferings. It is the same materialistic conception which has triumphed in German Marxism and in the economic interpretation of history. In this respect the critics of Marxism form two very distinct groups. Its best-known forms are the historical school in the science of law, and Marxism. This shortcoming of Marxism is cured by Dietzgen, who made the nature of the mind the special object of his investigations.
The doctrines of Karl Marx see also Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels on economics, politics, and society. They include the notion of economic determinism — that political and social structures are determined by the economic conditions of people. Marxism calls for a classless society see classwhere all means of production are commonly owned, a system to be reached as an inevitable result of the struggle between capitalists and workers.
See communism. The doctrines of Karl Marx see also Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels on economicspolitics, and society. Marxism calls for a classless society in which all means of production are commonly owned communisma system to be reached as an inevitable result of the struggle between the leaders of capitalism and the workers.
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What other words are related to Marxism? Quiz yourself! According to Marxismcapitalism is a flawed system that will inevitably fall. Communism and Christianism William Montgomery How to set up voicemail on verizon blackberry bold. German Problems and Personalities Charles Sarolea.
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Marxism is a social, political, and economic philosophy named after Karl Marx. It examines the effect of capitalism on labor, productivity, and economic development and argues for a worker. Marxism, a body of doctrine developed by Karl Marx and, to a lesser extent, by Friedrich Engels in the midth century. It originally consisted of three related ideas: a philosophical anthropology, a theory of history, and an economic and political program. There is also Marxism as it has been understood and practiced by the various socialist movements, particularly before To define Marxism in simple terms, it’s a political and economic theory where a society has no classes. Every person within the society works for a common good, and class struggle is .
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism , to understand class relations and social conflict as well as a dialectical perspective to view social transformation. As Marxism has developed over time into various branches and schools of thought , there is currently no single definitive Marxist theory. Some Marxist schools of thought place greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects.
Some schools have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts which has then led to contradictory conclusions. Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia, having influenced many fields, including anthropology ,   archaeology , art theory , criminology , cultural studies , economics , education , ethics , film theory , geography , historiography , literary criticism , media studies ,   philosophy , political science , psychology , science studies ,  sociology , urban planning and theater.
Marxism seeks to explain social phenomena within any given society by analyzing the material conditions and economic activities required to fulfill human material needs. It assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of production , influences all other social phenomena including wider social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems, aesthetics and ideologies.
These social relations, together with the economic system, form a base and superstructure. As forces of production i. As Karl Marx observed: . At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or—this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms—with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.
From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution. These inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in society which are, in turn, fought out at the level of class struggle.
Starting with the conjectural premise that social change occurs as result of the struggle between different classes within society who contradict one another, a Marxist would conclude that capitalism exploits and oppresses the proletariat, therefore capitalism will inevitably lead to a proletarian revolution.
In a socialist society, private property —as the means of production—would be replaced by co-operative ownership. A socialist economy would not base production on the creation of private profits, but on the criteria of satisfying human needs—that is, production for use.
As Friedrich Engels explains: . Then the capitalist mode of appropriation, in which the product enslaves first the producer, and then the appropriator, is replaced by the mode of appropriation of the products that is based upon the nature of the modern means of production; upon the one hand, direct social appropriation, as means to the maintenance and extension of production — on the other, direct individual appropriation, as means of subsistence and of enjoyment.
Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rate of profit by cutting employees' wages and social benefits while pursuing military aggression. The socialist mode of production would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through revolution by workers. According to Marxian crisis theory , socialism is not an inevitability, but an economic necessity.
The term Marxism was popularized by Karl Kautsky , who considered himself an orthodox Marxist during the dispute between the orthodox and revisionist followers of Marx. Engels did not support the use of the term Marxism to describe either Marx's or his own views. Society does not consist of individuals, but expresses the sum of interrelations, the relations within which these individuals stand. Marxism uses a materialist methodology, referred to by Marx and Engels as the materialist conception of history and later better known as historical materialism, to analyse the underlying causes of societal development and change from the perspective of the collective ways in which humans make their living.
The base and superstructure metaphor describes the totality of social relations by which humans produce and re-produce their social existence. According to Marx, "[t]he sum total of the forces of production accessible to men determines the condition of society" and forms a society's economic base. The base includes the material forces of production such as the labour , means of production and relations of production , i.
From this base rises a superstructure of legal and political "forms of social consciousness " that derive from the economic base that conditions both the superstructure and the dominant ideology of a society. Conflicts between the development of material productive forces and the relations of production provokes social revolutions , whereby changes to the economic base leads to the social transformation of the superstructure.
This relationship is reflexive , in that the base initially gives rise to the superstructure and remains the foundation of a form of social organization. Those newly formed social organizations can then act again upon both parts of the base and superstructure so that rather than being static, the relationship is dialectic , expressed and driven by conflicts and contradictions. As Engels clarifies: .
The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave , patrician and plebeian , lord and serf , guild -master and journeyman , in a word, oppressor and oppressed , stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.
Marx considered recurring class conflicts as the driving force of human history as such conflicts have manifested themselves as distinct transitional stages of development in Western Europe. Accordingly, Marx designated human history as encompassing four stages of development in relations of production:.
While historical materialism has been referred to as a materialist theory of history, Marx does not claim to have produced a master-key to history and that the materialist conception of history is not "an historico-philosophic theory of the marche generale , imposed by fate upon every people, whatever the historic circumstances in which it finds itself". In a letter to editor of the Russian newspaper paper Otetchestvennye Zapiskym , he explains that his ideas are based upon a concrete study of the actual conditions in Europe.
According to the Marxist theoretician and revolutionary socialist Vladimir Lenin , "the principal content of Marxism" was "Marx's economic doctrine". Thus, he believed that they did this by purporting the concept that "the fastest possible growth of productive capital " was best not only for the wealthy capitalists but also for the workers because it provided them with employment. Exploitation is a matter of surplus labour —the amount of labour performed beyond what is received in goods.
Exploitation has been a socioeconomic feature of every class society and is one of the principal features distinguishing the social classes. The power of one social class to control the means of production enables its exploitation of other classes. Under capitalism, the labour theory of value is the operative concern, whereby the value of a commodity equals the socially necessary labour time required to produce it.
Under such condition, surplus value —the difference between the value produced and the value received by a labourer—is synonymous with the term surplus labour and capitalist exploitation is thus realised as deriving surplus value from the worker.
In pre-capitalist economies , exploitation of the worker was achieved via physical coercion. Under the capitalist mode of production, those results are more subtly achieved because workers do not own the means of production and must "voluntarily" enter into an exploitive work relationship with a capitalist in order to earn the necessities of life.
The worker's entry into such employment is voluntary in that they choose which capitalist to work for. However, the worker must work or starve, thus exploitation is inevitable and the voluntary nature of a worker participating in a capitalist society is illusory; it is production, not circulation, that causes exploitation.
Marx emphasised that capitalism per se does not cheat the worker. Alienation German: Gattungswesen , "species-essence" or "species-being" is the estrangement of people from their humanity, and a systematic result of capitalism. Under capitalism, the fruits of production belong to employers, who expropriate the surplus created by others and so generate alienated labourers.
In Marx's view, alienation is an objective characterization of the worker's situation in capitalism—his or her self-awareness of this condition is not prerequisite. Marx distinguishes social classes on the basis of two criteria, i. Following this criterion of class based on property relations, Marx identified the social stratification of the capitalist mode of production with the following social groups:.
Class consciousness denotes the awareness—of itself and the social world—that a social class possesses as well as its capacity to rationally act in their best interests. Class consciousness is required before a social class can effect a successful revolution and thus the dictatorship of the proletariat. Without defining ideology ,  Marx used the term to describe the production of images of social reality.
According to Engels: . The real motive forces impelling him remain unknown to him; otherwise it simply would not be an ideological process. Hence he imagines false or seeming motive forces. Because the ruling class controls the society's means of production, the superstructure of society i. In The German Ideology , Marx says that "[t]he ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas, i.
In Marxism, political economy is the study of the means of production, specifically of capital and how that manifests as economic activity. This new way of thinking was invented because socialists believed that common ownership of the means of production i. Through working class revolution, the state which Marxists saw as a weapon for the subjugation of one class by another is seized and used to suppress the hitherto ruling class of capitalists and by implementing a commonly owned, democratically controlled workplace create the society of communism which Marxists see as true democracy.
An economy based on co-operation on human need and social betterment, rather than competition for profit of many independently acting profit seekers, would also be the end of class society, which Marx saw as the fundamental division of all hitherto existing history. Marx saw work, the effort by humans to transform the environment for their needs, as a fundamental feature of human kind.
Capitalism , in which the product of the worker's labour is taken from them and sold at market rather than being part of the worker's life, is therefore alienating to the worker. Additionally, the worker is compelled by various means some nicer than others to work harder, faster and for longer hours.
While this is happening, the employer is constantly trying to save on labour costs by paying the workers less and figuring out how to use cheaper equipment. This allows the employer to extract the largest amount of work and therefore potential wealth from their workers. The fundamental nature of capitalist society is no different from that of slave society, in that one small group of society exploits the larger group.
Through common ownership of the means of production, the profit motive is eliminated and the motive of furthering human flourishing is introduced.
Because the surplus produced by the workers is the property of the society as a whole, there are no classes of producers and appropriators. Additionally, as the state has its origins in the bands of retainers hired by the first ruling classes to protect their economic privilege, it will wither away as its conditions of existence have disappeared. According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx , "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc.
He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that "socialism" and "Communism" are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".
According to orthodox Marxist theory, the overthrow of capitalism by a socialist revolution in contemporary society is inevitable. While the inevitability of an eventual socialist revolution is a controversial debate among many different Marxist schools of thought, all Marxists believe socialism is a necessity.
Marxists argue that a socialist society is far better for the majority of the populace than its capitalist counterpart. Prior to the Russian Revolution , Vladimir Lenin wrote: . The socialization of production is bound to lead to the conversion of the means of production into the property of society. The failure of the Russian Revolution , along with the failure of socialist movements to resist the outbreak of World War I , led to renewed theoretical effort and valuable contributions from Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg towards an appreciation of Marx's crisis theory and efforts to formulate a theory of imperialism.
Classical Marxism denotes the collection of socio-eco-political theories expounded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. As Ernest Mandel remarked, "Marxism is always open, always critical, always self-critical". Classical Marxism distinguishes Marxism as broadly perceived from "what Marx believed". In , Marx wrote to his son-in-law Paul Lafargue and French labour leader Jules Guesde —both of whom claimed to represent Marxist principles—accusing them of "revolutionary phrase-mongering" and of denying the value of reformist struggle.
Accusing Guesde and Lafargue of "revolutionary phrase-mongering" and "of denying the value of reformist struggles, Marx made his famous remark that, if their politics represented Marxism, 'ce qu'il y a de certain c'est que moi, je ne suis pas Marxiste' 'what is certain is that I myself am not a Marxist' ".
American Marxist scholar Hal Draper responded to this comment by saying: "There are few thinkers in modern history whose thought has been so badly misrepresented, by Marxists and anti-Marxists alike". Libertarian Marxism emphasizes the anti-authoritarian and libertarian aspects of Marxism.
Early currents of libertarian Marxism such as left communism emerged in opposition to Marxism—Leninism. Libertarian Marxism is often critical of reformist positions such as those held by social democrats. Libertarian Marxist currents often draw from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ' later works, specifically the Grundrisse and The Civil War in France ;  emphasizing the Marxist belief in the ability of the working class to forge its own destiny without the need for a vanguard party to mediate or aid its liberation.
Libertarian Marxism includes currents such as autonomism , council communism , De Leonism , Lettrism , parts of the New Left , Situationism , Socialisme ou Barbarie and workerism.
The theoretical development of Marxist archaeology was first developed in the Soviet Union in , when a young archaeologist named Vladislav I.
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